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Crises can come in various forms, and include events threatening an organization’s reputation, image, programmers, assets, financial stability or the safety and security of its staff. In this last case, a crisis may be precipitated by a critical incident. Crisis Surprise – Even naturally occurring events, such as floods, earthquakes and bush fires, do not escalate to the level of crisis unless they come at a time or a level of intensity beyond everyone’s expectations. Threat – all crises create threatening circumstances that reach beyond the typical problems organizations face. The threat of a crisis can affect the organization’s financial security, its customers, residents living near a production facility, and others.Short response time – the threatening nature of crises means that they must be addressed quickly. This urgency is compounded by the fact that crises come as a surprise and introduce extreme threat into the situation. A crisis is defined as a significant threat to operations that can have negative consequences if not handled properly. In crisis management, the threat is the potential damage a crisis can inflict on an organization, its stakeholders, and an industry. Any global, regional, or local natural or human-caused event or business interruption that runs the risk of (1) Escalating in intensity, (2) Adversely impacting shareholder value or the organization’s financial position, (3) Causing harm to people or damage to property or the environment, (4) Falling under close media or government scrutiny, (5) Interfering with normal operations and wasting significant management time and/or financial resources, (6) Adversely affecting employee morale, or (7) Jeopardizing the organization’s reputation, products, or officers, and therefore negatively impacting its future A crisis can create three related threats: 1) public safety, 2) financial loss, and 3) reputation loss. Some crisis, such as industrial accidents and product harm, can result in injuries and even loss of lives. Crisis can create financial loss by disrupting operations, creating a loss of market share/purchase intentions, or spawning lawsuits related to the crisis. A crisis reflects poorly on an organization and will damage a reputation to some degree. Clearly these three threats are interrelated. Injuries or deaths will results in financial and reputation loss while reputations have a financial impact on organizations. Effective crisis management handles the threats sequentially. The primary concern in a crisis has to be public safety. A failure to address public safety intensifies the damage from a crisis. Reputation and financial concerns are considered after public safety has been remedied. Ultimately, crisis management is designed to project and organization and its stakeholders from threats and/or reduces the impact felt by threats. Crisis management is a process designed to prevent or lessen the damage a crisis can inflict on an organization and its stakeholders. As a process crisis management is not just one thing. Crisis management can be divided into three phases: Pre-Crisis Crisis response Post crisis The Pre-crisis phase is concerned with prevention and preparation. The Crisis response phase is when management must actually respond to a crisis. The Post crisis phase looks for ways to better prepare for the nest crisis and fulfills commitments made during the crisis phase including follow-up information. The tripartite view of crisis management serves as the organizing framework for this entry. A critical incident (CI) is an event or series of events that seriously threatens the welfare of personnel, potentially resulting in death, life-threatening injury or illness. Most critical incidents although they may have potentially severe impacts on individual staff and programmers do not have wider implications for the organization as a whole and are thus managed by regular management structures, with additional support from headquarters if required. A critical incident or series of such incidents becomes a crisis when its nature, severity or broader consequences for an organization warrant a response beyond the capacity of routine programmed management mechanisms, i.e. requiring leadership and coordination from senior management level. Critical incidents frequently constituting crises include but are not limited to: Abduction, kidnap or hostage-taking Murder or death in suspicious circumstances Incidents causing multiple casualties and requiring urgent response (medical, operational, psycho-social) Arrest or detention Other security situations or events causing a high degree of threat to staff Complicated or large-scale evacuation, or medical evacuation ("medevac") When such incidents occur, special structures and policies may be activated to supplement regular management capacities. A Crisis Management Team (CMT) manages a crisis situation at headquarter (or regional) level. A CMT is activated when a critical incident or any other situation is determined to be a crisis by senior management. The composition and role of a CMT differs according to the type of crisis. An Incident Management Team (IMT) manages a critical incident at country level. In the case of a critical incident constituting a crisis this will occur under the direction of the CMT. IMTs may also be formed in cases of incidents not constituting crises, where they will operate under regular management structures. Purpose of Crisis Management Plan To ensure that interruption or manipulations of critical functions/services in critical sector organizations are brief, infrequent and manageable and cause least possible damage. To enable respective administrative Ministries/Departments to draw-up their own contingency plans in line with Crisis Management Plan for countering cyber attacks and cyber terrorism, equip themselves suitably for implementation, implement, supervise implementation and ensure compliance among all the organizational units (both public & private) within their domain. To assist organizations to put in place mechanisms to effectively deal with cyber security crisis and be able to pin point responsibilities and account-abilities right down to individual level. A Crisis Management Plan describes mechanisms, responsibilities and protocols to be activated by an organization in the event of a crisis. The objective of crisis preparedness is to mitigate the impact of an incident. Since the quality of crisis response has potentially significant influence over an incident’s outcome, it should be regarded as fundamental to the humanitarian risk management system. Strong capacity for crisis response and preparedness is necessary in order to: 1. Prevent (further) harm and ensure the health and/or safety of victim(s) and other staff affected by the crisis. The first hours following (the onset of) a crisis is often the most crucial, rendering instant reporting, a clear division of roles and responsibilities, and fast decision-making an absolute necessity.4 This requires comprehensive preparedness: protocols and flowcharts in place, and relevant staff trained and available. 2. Assure families of victims and agency staff of a responsible and effective response. Obtaining and maintaining the confidence of families of victims is important in terms of establishing good relations and making sure all stakeholders are "on board" dCrises can come in various forms, and include events threatening an organization’s reputation, image, programmers, assets, financial stability or the safety and security of its staff. In this last case, a crisis may be precipitated by a critical incident. Crisis Surprise – Even naturally occurring events, such as floods, earthquakes and bush fires, do not escalate to the level of crisis unless they come at a time or a level of intensity beyond everyone’s expectations.Threat – all crises create threatening circumstances that reach beyond the typical problems organizations face. The threat of a crisis can affect the organization’s financial security, its customers, residents living near a production facility, and others.Short response time – the threatening nature of crises means that they must be addressed quickly. This urgency is compounded by the fact that crises come as a surprise and introduce extreme threat into the situation. A crisis is defined as a significant threat to operations that can have negative consequences if not handled properly. In crisis management, the threat is the potential damage a crisis can inflict on an organization, its stakeholders, and an industry. Any global, regional, or local natural or human-caused event or business interruption that runs the risk of (1) Escalating in intensity, (2) Adversely impacting shareholder value or the organization’s financial position, (3) Causing harm to people or damage to property or the environment, (4) Falling under close media or government scrutiny, (5) Interfering with normal operations and wasting significant management time and/or financial resources, (6) Adversely affecting employee morale, or (7) Jeopardizing the organization’s reputation, products, or officers, and therefore negatively impacting its future A crisis can create three related threats: 1) public safety, 2) financial loss, and 3) reputation loss. Some crisis, such as industrial accidents and product harm, can result in injuries and even loss of lives. Crisis can create financial loss by disrupting operations, creating a loss of market share/purchase intentions, or spawning lawsuits related to the crisis. A crisis reflects poorly on an organization and will damage a reputation to some degree. Clearly these three threats are interrelated. Injuries or deaths will results in financial and reputation loss while reputations have a financial impact on organizations. Effective crisis management handles the threats sequentially. The primary concern in a crisis has to be public safety. A failure to address public safety intensifies the damage from a crisis. Reputation and financial concerns are considered after public safety has been remedied. Ultimately, crisis management is designed to project and organization and its stakeholders from threats and/or reduces the impact felt by threats. Crisis management is a process designed to prevent or lessen the damage a crisis can inflict on an organization and its stakeholders. As a process crisis management is not just one thing. Crisis management can be divided into three phases: Pre-Crisis Crisis response Post crisis The Pre-crisis phase is concerned with prevention and preparation. The Crisis response phase is when management must actually respond to a crisis. The Post crisis phase looks for ways to better prepare for the nest crisis and fulfills commitments made during the crisis phase including follow-up information. The tripartite view of crisis management serves as the organizing framework for this entry. A critical incident (CI) is an event or series of events that seriously threatens the welfare of personnel, potentially resulting in death, life-threatening injury or illness. Most critical incidents although they may have potentially severe impacts on individual staff and programmers do not have wider implications for the organization as a whole and are thus managed by regular management structures, with additional support from headquarters if required. A critical incident or series of such incidents becomes a crisis when its nature, severity or broader consequences for an organization warrant a response beyond the capacity of routine programmed management mechanisms, i.e. requiring leadership and coordination from senior management level. Critical incidents frequently constituting crises include but are not limited to: Abduction, kidnap or hostage-taking Murder or death in suspicious circumstances Incidents causing multiple casualties and requiring urgent response (medical, operational, psycho-social) Arrest or detention Other security situations or events causing a high degree of threat to staff Complicated or large-scale evacuation, or medical evacuation ("medevac") When such incidents occur, special structures and policies may be activated to supplement regular management capacities. A Crisis Management Team (CMT) manages a crisis situation at headquarter (or regional) level. A CMT is activated when a critical incident or any other situation is determined to be a crisis by senior management. The composition and role of a CMT differs according to the type of crisis. An Incident Management Team (IMT) manages a critical incident at country level. In the case of a critical incident constituting a crisis this will occur under the direction of the CMT. IMTs may also be formed in cases of incidents not constituting crises, where they will operate under regular management structures. Purpose of Crisis Management Plan To ensure that interruption or manipulations of critical functions/services in critical sector organizations are brief, infrequent and manageable and cause least possible damage. To enable respective administrative Ministries/Departments to draw-up their own contingency plans in line with Crisis Management Plan for countering cyber attacks and cyber terrorism, equip themselves suitably for implementation, implement, supervise implementation and ensure compliance among all the organizational units (both public & private) within their domain. To assist organizations to put in place mechanisms to effectively deal with cyber security crisis and be able to pin point responsibilities and account-abilities right down to individual level. A Crisis Management Plan describes mechanisms, responsibilities and protocols to be activated by an organization in the event of a crisis. The objective of crisis preparedness is to mitigate the impact of an incident. Since the quality of crisis response has potentially significant influence over an incident’s outcome, it should be regarded as fundamental to the humanitarian risk management system. Strong capacity for crisis response and preparedness is necessary in order to: 1. Prevent (further) harm and ensure the health and/or safety of victim(s) and other staff affected by the crisis. The first hours following (the onset of) a crisis is often the most crucial, rendering instant reporting, a clear division of roles and responsibilities, and fast decision-manuring and after the incident. This naturally also applies to agency staff. 3. Ensure continued organizational management and output during the crisis. Crisis management, especially for enduring incidents (for example, abductions), is resource-intensive. Crisis planning and preparedness will mitigate the risk of unnecessary distraction of senior management, thus contributing to the ability of Agencies to continue functioning. 4. Ensure programmer continuity. In addition to mitigating the impact of a crisis on organizational management, good crisis preparedness contributes to the ability of agencies to continue programmer activities during a crisis and/or re-start operations in its aftermath. 5. Fulfill organizational responsibilities and reduce the risk of litigation/liability claims. Contractual obligations and related litigation risks vary by country, since they are subject to national legislation. Agencies must ensure that they are fully aware of relevant legal labour frameworks, including those for national staff in each country of operation. 6. Safeguard organizational image and reputation. Inadequate crisis response, or perceived mishandling of a crisis (in the eyes of media and/or family), can negatively affect organizational image, with myriad consequences in countries of operation and at the international level (fundraising, recruitment, etc.). Again, a strong and professional crisis response will help to mitigate this risk. A caveat: safeguarding organizational reputation, while an important consideration, should never take precedence over the safety and well-being of staff, which remains the primary objective of crisis management within humanitarian agencies. Crisis Management is a critical Organizational function. Failure can result in serious harm to stakeholders, losses for an organization, or end its very existence. Public relations practitioners are an integral part of crisis management teams. So a set of best practices and lessons gleaned from our knowledge of crisis management would be a very useful resource for those in public relations. Volumes have been written about crisis management by both practitioners and researchers from many different disciplines making it challenges to synthesize what we know about crisis management and public relations place in that knowledge base. The best place to start this effort is defining critical concepts About the Author: 相关的主题文章:

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